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被动语态及用法

时间:2015-08-21 16:54来源:未知 作者:billgxl 点击:
被动语态及用法 一 概念:当句子的主语是动作的执行时,谓语的形式叫主动语态;当句子的主语是动作的承受者时,谓语的形式叫做被动语态。 二 构成助动词be+过去分词主动词be有时态、人称和数的变化,也可以构成否定或疑问句。 不同时态的被动语态例句 The Gr

被动语态及用法


一 概念:当句子的主语是动作的执行时,谓语的形式叫主动语态;当句子的主语是动作的承受者时,谓语的形式叫做被动语态。

二 构成“助动词be+过去分词”主动词be有时态、人称和数的变化,也可以构成否定或疑问句。

不同时态的被动语态例句

The Great Wall is known all over the world.
This city was liberated in 1948.
The matter will be discussed tomorrow.
The question is being discussed at present.
The boy was being operated on when his parents hurried to the hospital.
The bridge has been built this month
The tickets had been sold out before I came to the cinema
He said the book would be returned as soon as he finished it.
三、 用法:

1 需要强调动作的承受者;

2 只知道动作的承受者,不知道谁是动作的执行者;

3 论述科技内容的文体需要强调客观性和科学性。
 
四、不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:
appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.
 After the fire, very little remained of my house.
比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
 (错) The price has been risen.
 (对) The price has risen.
 (错) The accident was happened last week.   
 (对) The accident happened last week.
 (错) The price has raised.          
 (对) The price has been raised.
 (错) Please seat.              
 (对) Please be seated.
  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。

五、 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to
This key just fits the lock.
 Your story agrees with what had already been heard.
六、 系动词无被动语态:
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
  1) It sounds good. 2)The steel feels cold

3) The method proved (to be ) effective.


七、 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:
die, death, dream, live, life
  She dreamed a bad dream last night.

八、当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。
   (对) She likes to swim.
   (错) To swim is liked by her.

九、“be+过去分词”并不一定都是被动语态,有时是系表结构。当“be+过去分词”表示动作时为被动语态,be是助动词,be后面的过去分词是主要动词,动作的对象是主语;当“be +过去分词”表示主语所处的状态时为系表结构,be是连系动词。be后面的过去分词是表语,相当于形容词。其区分办法如下:
    1.如果强调动作或句中有介词by引导出动作的执行者,该句一般为被动语态,否则为系表结构。例如:
 :
   The glass is brok. 玻璃杯碎了。(系表结构)
   The glass was broken by the boy.玻璃杯被那男孩打碎了。(被动语态)

2.如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动语态。如:
The magazine is published in Shanghai.这家杂志出版于上海。(被动语态)
The door is locked. 门锁着。(系表结构)
The door has already/just been locked.门已经/刚刚被锁上。(被动语态)
The shop is opened.这家商店开门了。(系表结构)
The shop is opened at 8 a.m. everyday.这家商店每天上午八点开门。(被动语态

3.被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外,还可以用于其他各种时态,而系表结构中的系动词be只有一般时态和完成时态。
  所以下列句子都是被动语态:
  The machine is being repaired. 机器正在修。
  A new school will be built here. 这里将要建一所新学校。   

十、用某些不及物动词表示被动意义,如carry,cut,drive,iron,keep,lock,open,pick,read,sell,shut,tear,wash,wear,write等等。这类动词既能作及物动词,也能作不及物动词。作不及物动词时,形式上虽为主动,却表示被动意义。例如:
Meat cuts easily.肉容易切。
His novel sells well.他的小说畅销。
The car drove easily.这车很容易开。
Your pen writes quite smoothly.你的笔写起来很滑。
在上述句子中,主语通常指物,起动作承受者的作用,也可以说是不及物动词的逻辑宾语。但是有时也有用人称主语的。例如:
The girl does not photograph well.这女孩不上像。

比较:The girl has not been photographed well.这女孩的照片没拍好。
十一、某些感觉动词的主动态表示被动意义。例如:
This shirt feels much softer than that one.

这件衬衫比那件衬衫摸起来柔软得多

That book smells old.那本书有一股霉味。
These oranges taste nice.这些橙子味道很好。
以上这些动词都不能用进行时表示。若用进行时,则表示主动含义。

比较:The child is smelling the paint.小孩正在闻油漆的气味。

十二、动词get,come,go之后接过去分词,表示被动意义。get的这种用法局限于口语和非正式的书面语言,更强调动作的结果而非动作本身,并常用来表示突发性的、出乎意料的偶然事件。而come和go常接含否定意义的过去分词。例如:   
After working selflessly in here for several years, Mr Li got promoted at last.李先生在此地无私地干了好几年,终于得到提升。   
They got delayed because of the holiday traffic.

由于节日交通阻塞,他们被耽误了。  

The buttons on my coat came undone.我上衣的扣子松开了。   
The woman”s complaints went unnoticed.那位女士的投诉无人理睬。

十三、在need(want,require,deserve,etc.)doing句型中,动名词(doing)相当于动词不定式的被动式(to be done),在意思上没有多大差别。例如:   
The garden needs watering.?The garden needs to be watered.花园需要浇水。   The problem requires studying with great care.?

The problem requires to be studied with great care.这个问题需要仔细研究。
These jobs want doing at once.?

These jobs want to be done at once.这些工作需要马上就做。
用法相似的结构还有bear doing, stand doing, be worth doing,习惯不用动词不定式。如: That won”t bear thinking of.那是不堪想像的。   
The little girl can”t stand criticizing.小女孩经不起批评。   
The food is not worth eating.这种饭菜不值一吃。   
It”s well worth making the effort to learn how to do it.

很值得花一番功夫去学会怎么做这事。
值得注意的是,在be worth doing句型中,只能用动名词的主动式,而在be worthy to be done中,才能用动词不定式的被动式,两者不可混淆。   

十四、在某些性质形容词+动词不定式的句型中,其动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。(difficult, easy, hard, comfortable, pleasant, fit, unfit, light , heavy, good, safe, dangerous)例如:   
The question is easy to answer.这问题容易回答。  
That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。   
在这种句型结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻辑上的动宾关系,可以说是动词不定式作主语变换来的,相当于It”s easy to answer the question.和It”s difficult to understand that book.由于把动词宾语放在主语位置,所以和不定式的关系构成一种被动关系。   
7、有些动词不定式不论用主动形式还是被动形式,动词不定式和主语的关系都是被动的。例如:   
Nobody was to blame (to be blamed) for the accident.

这个事故,谁也不能责怪。  

The house is to let (to be let).这房子出租。   

There are a lot of books to read (to be read).有许多书要读。   

Those cars are to rent (to be rented).那些汽车出租。
 

(责任编辑:billgxl)
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