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非谓语动词(7)

时间:2018-10-11 21:25来源:未知 作者:billgxl 点击:
分词(分词分为现在分词和过去分词。在句中作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。) 现在分词和过去分词的区别: 在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义; 在时间上,现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或

分词(分词分为现在分词和过去分词。在句中作定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。)

现在分词和过去分词的区别:
在语态上,现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义;
在时间上,现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行或者与谓语动词同时发生,过去分词表示的动作已经完成或没有一定的时间性。
如:falling leaves 正在下落的树叶  fallen leaves 已经落在地上的树叶
  • 分词的作用
  1. 作定语
  1. 单个分词作定语,分词前置。如:
The sleeping boy is my son.
The excited people rushed into the building.
A lost opportunity never returns.
He is a retired worker.
  1. 分词短语作定语,分词后置;分词修饰不定代词something等要后置;个别分词如give,left等作定语也后置。如:
The girl standing under the tree is my niece.
The building built last year is our library.
This is the question given.
There is nothing interesting.
  1. 过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如:
Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists
The first textbook ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A  have written      B  to be written     C  being written    D  written
答案:D
 
What’s the language ______ in Germany?
A  speaking          B  spoken         C  be spoken     D  to speak
答案:B
Prices of daily goods ______ through a computer can be lower than store prices.
A  are bought        B  bought         C  been bought   D  buying.
答案:B
When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.”
A  read             B  reads           C  to read       D  reading
答案:D
解析:reading 与 pinned to the door 一样作message 的后置定语,相当于which read, pinned 和 reading的逻辑主语都是 message,它与pin是被动关系,用—ed 形式,与 read 是主动关系,用—ing 形式
  1. 作状语
现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。
Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
As I didn’t receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.(条件) (责任编辑:billgxl)
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