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非谓语动词(2)

时间:2018-10-11 21:25来源:未知 作者:billgxl 点击:
不定式 不定式的作用 作主语 不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。如: It took us two hours to finish the job. It is impossible for us to get there on time. It is very

不定式

  • 不定式的作用
  1. 作主语  不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。如:
It took us two hours to finish the job.
It is impossible for us to get there on time.
It is very kind of you to help us.
注意:(1)其他系动词如look, appear等也可用于此句型。
     (2)当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is …to…的句型。试比较:
         It is to negate my own idea to believe him.(错)
         To believe him is to negate my own idea .(对)    
(3)It is+ adj. of / for sb. to do sth. 结构中,当不定式的逻辑主语和前面的形容词可以构成系表结构时,用of, 否则用 for.
  1. 作宾语
  1. 动词+不定式。如:
He managed to escape from the fire.
I find it hard to get along with him.(it 作形式宾语)
注:下列动词通常用不定式作宾语:want, try, hope, wish, need, forget, know, promise, refuse, help, decide, begin, start, learn, agree, choose, get等
  1. 动词+疑问词+to , “特殊疑问句+不定式”相当于名词,作宾语。如:
I don’t know what to do next/ how to do it next.
I can’t decide when to go there.
注意:不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后,用it 作形式宾语。如:
I find it necessary to learn a foreign language.
  1. 作宾语补足语
  1. 动词+宾语+不定式(to do )。如:
He warned me to be careful.
I want you to speak to Tom.
What makes you think so?(不带to的不定式)
     注:可以用动词不定式做宾补的动词有:ask, tell, order ,want ,get, would like, like, advise, invite, allow, help, wish,warn, expect, prefer, encourage
  1. 表见解、看法的动词结构可为:动词+宾语+ to be 的不定式结构。如:
We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.
The book is believed to be useful.(被动语态)
     (3)   There +不定式。如:
We didn’t expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。
注意:(1)有些动词需用 as 短语作补语,像regard, think, believe, take, consider。如:
We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。
Mary took him as her father. 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。
(2)在动词feel (一感),hear, listen to(二听),have, let, make(三让),notice, see, watch, observe, look at(五看)(即:吾看三室两厅一感觉)等后面的补足语中,不定式不带to,但变为被动语态后,必须带to。如:
They saw the boy fall off the tree.      The boy was seen to fall off the tree.
           (3)help后面作宾语补足语的不定式可以带to,也可以不带to. (责任编辑:billgxl)
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